ARON, RAYMOND (1905–1983), French sociologist and writer. Aron, who was born in Paris, taught at Le Havre, Toulouse, Cologne, and Berlin. In 1956 he was appointed professor of sociology at the Sorbonne, and director of studies at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris in 1960. During World War II he was editor of Free France – La France Libre, published in London, and subsequently contributed both as writer and editor to Combat, Le Figaro, and the European Journal of Sociology, and other periodicals. In 1979 Aron was awarded the Goethe Prize of Frankfurt, a major literary award of West Germany. Philosophically, Aron was deeply influenced by the neo-Kantian Léon Brunschvig and the phenomenologists Heidegger and husserl ; in sociology he was influenced by Max Weber, and his critical study of several German sociologists, Sociologie allemande contemporaine (1936; German Sociology, 1957), reflects this influence. His most erudite and probing work is Introduction à la philosophie de l'histoire (1938; Introduction to the Philosophy of History, 1961), supplemented by Les grandes doctrines de sociologie historique (2 vols., 1960–62; Main Currents in Sociological Thought, 2 vols., 1965–67). In these works, Aron attempts to strike a balance between a humanistic sociology and a philosophically conceived treatment of the history of ideas, a combination of empiricism and phenomenology. His main interest was the analysis of modern industrial society which, in his opinion, is not so much defined by the class struggle as by the clash of competing political systems. Hence he was rather an exception among French thinkers of his time, and his commitment to liberal democracy set him apart from the then Marxist-dominated intellectual tendencies. Strongly opposed to Sartre's political views, he nevertheless joined him in the movement advocating the rights of Vietnamese refugees in the late 1970s. The return to pluralism and democracy in most French political philosophy in the 1980s and 1990s led to the rehabilitation of his works, which are now considered fundamental. He was a sophisticated commentator on the antecedents of modern society, on the dialectic between democracy and totalitarianism, on international relations, and on the terrifying issues raised by the cold war. Among his major works on   these topics are L'homme contre les tyrans (1946); L'Opium des intellectuels (1955; The Opium of the Intellectuals, 1957); Espoir et peur du siècle (1957); Le développement de la société industrielle et la stratification sociale (2 vols., 1956–57); Dimensions de la conscience historique (1961); Paix et guerre entre les nations (1962); Progress and Disillusion (1968); Histoire et dialectique de la violence (1973); Penser la guerre, Clausewitz (1976; Clausewitz, Philosopher of War, 1983); Plaidoyer pour l'Europe décadente (1977; In Defense of Decadent Europe, 1984). His Mémoires were first published in 1983 (Memoirs: Fifty Years of Political Reflection, 1997). Although not involved in Jewish affairs, Aron remained a conscious Jew. In a series of essays published as De Gaulle, Israel and the Jews (1969), he concluded that even if the French president was not himself an antisemite, his notorious press conference after the Six-Day War certainly encouraged the anti-Jewish elements in French society. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Howard, in: Encounter, 30 (Feb. 1968), 55–59. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: D.J. Mahoney, The Liberal Political Science of Raymond Aron (1992); N. Baverez, Raymond Aron, un moraliste au temps des ideologies (1993); S. Launay, La pensée politique de Raymond Aron (1995); B.C. Anderson, Raymond Aron: The Recovery of the Political (1998). (Alvin Boskoff and Werner J. Cahnman / Dror Franck Sullaper (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Aron, Raymond — (1905 1983)    philosopher and sociologist    Born and educated in Paris, Raymond Aron was a prominent political thinker who served as editor in chief of La France libre in London during World War II (1941 44) and, with Jean Paul Sartre, was one… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Aron, Raymond — ▪ French sociologist born March 14, 1905, Paris, France died Oct. 17, 1983, Paris       French sociologist, historian, and political commentator known for his skepticism of ideological orthodoxies.       The son of a Jewish jurist, Aron obtained… …   Universalium

  • Aron, Raymond — (1905 83) A controversial French sociologist, Aron was professor of sociology at the Sorbonne from 1955 to 1968, and for some years a prominent member of the Mont Pelerin Society (although he later resigned). He was instrumental in introducing… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Aron, Raymond (-Claude-Ferdinand) — born 1905 died 1983 French sociologist and historian. After receiving his doctorate from the École Normale Supérieure (1930), he taught at the University of Toulouse until 1939. During World War II he joined the Free French and edited their… …   Universalium

  • Aron, Raymond (-Claude-Ferdinand) — (1905–1983). Sociólogo e historiador francés. Luego de doctorarse en la École Normale Supérieure (1930), enseñó en la Universidad de Toulouse hasta 1939. Durante la segunda guerra mundial se unió a Francia Libre y editó su periódico (1940–44).… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Aron, Raymond — ► (1905 83) Sociólogo francés. Se dedicó al estudio de las sociedades industriales. Escribió Diez lecciones sobre la sociedad industrial (1962). En 1979 recibió el premio Goethe, y en 1982 el premio Erasmo …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Aron — Aron, Raymond …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron — Raymond Aron Pour les articles homonymes, voir Aron. Raymond Aron Philosophe occidental XXe siècle Naissa …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Aron (name) — Aron is a masculine given name and a surname. It is an alternate spelling of Aaron , prominent biblical figure in the Old Testament. The name mean mountaineer , or mount of strength . There are given name and surname variants.People with the name …   Wikipedia

  • Aron — m. *Aro (planta). * * * aron. m. aro2. * * * Aron, Raymond …   Enciclopedia Universal

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”